Link for WagonR THINK BIG CHALLENGE – Smart Ideas Lead The World

Title: WagonR
Link: http://gotaf.socialtwist.com/redirect?l=317254061954589295811

Illegal Animal fighting

SLUM STUDY IN HUBLI

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research project, sanitation facilities & disease occurrence in 3 slums of Hubli, will be embarked upon the given set of objectives in order to make inference about the sanitation facilities in that slum:

• Ascertain the commonly occurring diseases in the slum, and thus establish the link between the occurrence of diseases and lack/poor sanitation facilities.

• On the basis of data collected, determine the commonly occurring diseases in the slum

• To analyze the medical expenditure of a family on sanitation related diseases in the last 2 years.

• On the basis of certain parameters, determine its impact on the family’s quality of life.

HYPOTHESIS

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS (H1): Urban slum dwellers due to poor sanitation facility fall sick frequently and have higher medical expenditure.

NULL HYPOTHESIS (H0) : There is no relationship between poor sanitation facilities in urban slums and frequency of sickness & heavy medical expenditure

GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF RESEARCH:

1. Maruthi Nagar Slum(Heggeri Slum) Hubli (only visiting)
2. Aralikatti slum , Hubli
3. Gandhi Vada Slum
4. Nekar Nagar, Old Hubli

SAMPLE SIZE : 31 Families

TYPE OF SAMPLING:
Non-Probability Sampling – Purposive Sampling

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION FROM PRIMARY SOURCES:
• Household survey
• Questionnaire (Consists of a combination of both open and closed ended questions)
• Focus group discussion

VILLAGE STUDY (PARSAPUR)

VILLAGE STUDY (PARSAPUR)

Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Date
  • Geographical details of the village
  • Tools and techniques of Participatory Rural Appraisal used
  • Resources
  • My Observation
  • Conclusion

I. INTRODUCTION

After one day stay at Gram Chetana and practicing the various tools of Participatory rural Appraisal in Sudagatti village, I with my team mate Mallikaarjun headed to Parsapur Village to carry out two days of village study. The main objective of our two days stay at village was to understand and closely observe the life style of the villagers. Also to learn some of their best practices and try to identify the problems and challenges faced by them in day to day life.

II.            DATE:13th & 14th September , 2009 (Sunday & Monday)

III.            VILLAGE: Parsapur village, Taluk: Kalagatagi , District: Dharwad

IV. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF PARTICIPATORY RURAL APPRAISAL USED:

The following eight tools of Participatory Rural Appraisal were practiced on Sunday, 13th September, 2009 to get a deeper understanding of the village. Villagers were the participants in all the below mentioned tools, while I and Mallikarjun facilitated the entire process.

1. Social mapping:

The villagers drew the map of the entire village highlighting the major institutions like location of primary school, balwadi, anganwadi, main roads, fields, location of houses and its distribution based on their caste, economic class, religion and occupation. Through this activity I could collect a lot of information about the village. The villagers actively participated in the discussion which highlighted some of the major aspects of the village’s life style and the social structure. For example I came to know that there are 200 houses in the village and the total population is 800, out of which 450 have voting power. The male to female ratio is 1:2. The village mainly had people from Hindu religion but there were about 8 houses of Jain religion and 16 houses of Muslim religion.

2. Venn diagram:

Through this technique the villagers classified the various institutions like Post Office, Bank, Hospital, Gram Panchayat, Police station etc based on based on their relative importance or non-importance. Some of the interesting findings of this tool were that according to the villagers’ institutions like Police Station and Courts were not important and not accessible to the villagers. They mainly relied on Gram Panchayat to solve their disputes. Primary Health Centre is important but not accessible.

3. Seasonal  mapping:

Through this technique I found out the seasonal patterns in their farming practices. I found that September to December were the main months to engage in agricultural activities. They mainly grew cotton, rice, millets, groundnuts, corn, soya bean etc on red soil. Out of the total land available for cultivation 76% is dry land while the rest 24% is irrigated land. Along with this they also had orchards of Mango, Saputo, and Papaya. Teakwood trees were also grown which fetched them good returns.

4. Timeline:

Through this technique I identified the nature and the number of employment opportunities available to the villagers in the past 30 years. Agriculture has been their main livelihood opportunity. While the trend began to change in the past 10 years when people moved to cities and started small scale business like grocery shops and broom making.

5. Case Study:

Manjula, 18 years old has been engaged in farming since the age of 14 years. Her mother died of paralysis attack when she was 9 years old and her father passed away 4 years back due to excessive alcohol consumption. She has 5 siblings, of which 3 elder sisters are married while the 2 brothers are unmarried and engaged in farming and brick making occupation. The family’s daily income is close to 200 INR. This income is not regular as they do not get work on all days of the month. On an average they work for 4 days per week. They live on shoe string budget and many a times have to manage on debts from close relatives or local money lenders. A part of the income generated by Majula and her two brothers from farming goes for monthly installment of the loan their father took for agricultural purpose. Manjula is of marriageable age but due to lack of dowry and parental support she is leading a hard life.

6. Group Discussion:

Through Group discussion I came to know that 35% – 45% of the total population belonged to the Below Poverty Line (BPL). Agriculture is the prime source of employment. Apart from this they also engage in brick making, animal husbandry, dairy farming, broom making etc.

7. Village Transect:

We began our village study by taking a walk across the entire village. This tool helped us in the initial rapport building with the villagers. We closely observed their lifestyle, some of the common practices of the village and the distribution of houses in different parts of the village. While interacting with some of the villagers I came to know that the village had faced severe drought and famine in the year 1982. At that time, due to lack of irrigation facility, most of the farmers migrated to Goa in search of job. The men worked as construction laborers and earned a daily wage of 20 INR, which they would sent to the women though money order to run the house.

8. Field Transect

Through this tool I came to know that 300 acres of land was used for farming purpose. Irrigated land was cultivated twice in a year while the non irrigated land was cultivated only once a year. For farming they borrowed money from the local money lenders at 5 % interest rate. Wealthy farmers have switched on to tractors instead of bulls and cows. In Parsapur village nearly 14 framers have tractors, which cost between the ranges of 4.5 lacs to 8 lacs. Farmers who use bulls for farming, purchase them at the age of 6 years by paying anywhere between 25,000 INR to 30,000 INR. They feed Batta, Jawar and Corn to the cattle.

V. INSTITUTIONS VISITED:

On Monday, 14th September, 2009 I and Mallikarjun visited the following institutions in Parsapur, Tadas and Hullikatti villages.

  1. Primary school – Parsapur
  2. Gram Panchayat – Hullikatti
  3. Vijaya Bank – Tadas
  4. Post Office – Hullikatti
  5. Dairy – Parsapur
  6. SHG Society – Hullikatti
  7. Main Market – Tadas
  8. Balwadi – Parsapur
  9. Anganwadi – Parsapur
  10. Dairy – Parsapur
  11. Bhajan Mandal – Parsapur
  12. SHG society – Hullikatti

VI. RESOURCE:

  • 2 lakes used for bathing cattle, washing clothes and utensils.
  • 300 acres of agricultural land.
  • 3 public water tanks and tap facility for every house

VII. OBSERVATIONS

  • Poor sanitation facility.
  • Non availability of Primary Health Centre.
  • Lack of irrigation facility
  • Lack of higher education facility

VIII. LEARNINGS:

  • One of my main learning was that government is ready to provide toilet facility to the villagers but villagers do not feel it is important and prefer to go in open fields.

IX. UNLEARNINGS:

  • I was under an impression that most villagers are illiterate but after my 2 days of village study I found out that villagers know the importance of education and they make sure that their children regularly go to the school.

X. CHALENGES FACED:

  1. Language: Language was a barrier till the time I built rapport with the villagers. I mainly communicated with them through gestures.
  2. Building rapport & faith: Convincing people to share information about the sensitive topics like credit details, family income, and domestic violence.

XI. CONCLUSION:

To sum up this 2 days of village visit added to my knowledge and changed my perception about villagers. It also made to think from their point of view and then find appropriate solutions.

Gaia Quotes – What is entrepreneurship, after all?…

Gaia Quotes – What is entrepreneurship, after all?…

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Prisoner’s Dilemma

Prisoners Dilemma

Prisoner's Dilemma

Prisoner’s Dilemma

Two suspects are arrested by the police. The police have insufficient evidence for a conviction, and, having separated both prisoners, visit each of them to offer the same deal. If one testifies (defects) for the prosecution against the other and the other remains silent, the betrayer goes free and the silent accomplice receives the full 10-year sentence. If both remain silent, both prisoners are sentenced to only six months in jail for a minor charge. If each betrays the other, each receives a five-year sentence. Each prisoner must choose to betray the other or to remain silent. Each one is assured that the other would not know about the betrayal before the end of the investigation. How should the prisoners act?

Microsoft office Publisher

Microsoft office publisher is a desktop publishing application from Microsoft. It can be used to prepare

A. Business Cards

B. Flyers

C. Advertisements

D. Award Certificates

E. Broachures

F. Calendars

and the list goes on…….

Individual creativity is the key to produce unimaginable products from Microsoft Publisher. The use to various templates with the combination of  wide color schemes, page options and font schemes adds to the beauty of the final product. Publisher makes the appearance eye catchy and vivid.

I hope to make the most of it for my future leadership and entrepreneurial activities at DFP.